A moderately large, spotted deer with three tines on each antler; the brow tine forms nearly a right angle with the beam and the front (or outer) tine of the terminal fork is much longer than the hind (or inner) tine; a gland-bearing cleft is present on the front of the pastern of the hind foot; upperparts yellowish brown to rufous brown, profusely dappled with white spots; abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs and ears, and underside of tail white; dark stripe from nape to near tip of tail. Dental formula as in Cervus elaphus , but upper canines (the so-called elk teeth) usually lacking.

This handsome member of the deer family is also one that was closest to extinction a few decades ago. Although their numbers have now revived, it is still an endangered species and is spread across central and northern India only in small congregations. It is a medium size member of the deer family. Smaller than the Sambar Deer, it weighs in at approximately 180 kgs once fully grown with a height nearing 130 cms . Their famous antlers , by the time they attain adulthood, develop more than 12 points and attain lengths up to 75 cms . Their life expectancy ranges between 20 - 30 years .

A medium-sized antelope with ringed, unbranched, "corkscrew" horns that rise above the head of males in a tall, V-shaped pattern. Measured from base to tip, horns reach up to 79 cm in length, although Texas blackbuck rarely have horns exceeding 58 cm. Normally, females are hornless.

The Sitka black-tailed deer is smaller, stockier, and has a shorter face than other members of the black- tailed group. Fawns are born in early June and weigh 6 to 8 pounds (2.7-3.6 kg) at birth. The average October live weight of adults is about 80 pounds (36 kg) for does and 120 pounds (54.5 kg) for bucks, although dressed-weight bucks of over 200 pounds (90.1 kg) have been reported. The summer coat of reddish-brown is replaced by dark brownish gray in winter. Antlers are dark brown with typical black-tailed branching.

Caribou are rather large members of the deer family. Their broad, concave hoofs spread to aid walking on soft ground and are good for digging in snow. Both sexes grow antlers that in males serve as ornaments and weapons for fighting rivals during the breeding season. Alaskan caribou are clove-brown with a white neck and rump. Chukotkan reindeer, as a result of domestication, have varied pelt combinations of brown, grey, black and white in the same herd.


Large, deerlike, the males with large, usually six-pointed antlers that are shed annually; hair on neck long and shaggy; upperparts buffy fawn, the head, neck, legs and belly dull rusty brown to blackish; large rump patch creamy buff to whitish; metatarsal gland oval, about 75 mm long, the center white; tail a mere rudiment. Dental formula: I 0/3, C 1/1, Pm 3/3, M 3/3 X 2 = 34. External measurements average: (males) total length, about 2 m; tail, 160 mm; hind foot, 670 mm. Weight, up to 300 kg, averaging about 275 kg. Females are smaller and usually without antlers.

Habitat & Diet

A medium sized "rangy" deer; adult males with large palmate antlers. Bucks develop "spike" antlers beginning in their first year and until 3-4 years old, grow and cast only antlers comprised of beams and simple points. At 3-4 years of age males may develop antlers with broad, palmate areas that measure 8-25 cm in width; total length of antlers is up to 39 cm.

The Giant Irish Elk was one of the largest deer species there has ever been. Its name is misleading, as it was probably a species of deer and not an Elk. It had a body height of about 2 meters and weighed over 700kg. It was roughly the same size as a modern day moose, but its antlers made it seem much larger. The Giant Elk was distributed across Europe from between 400,000 and 10,000 years ago.

A bull moose can reach 1,400 pounds, and the subspecies tundra moose Alces alces gigas , found in Alaska , can be 1,800 pounds and 8½ feet long. Their size doesn't limit their speed at all - those long legs can move a moose along at up to 35 miles per hour.

A moderately large deer with large ears; antlers typically dichotomously branched and restricted almost entirely to males; metatarsal gland 8-12 cm long, narrow, and situated above midpoint of shank; upperparts in winter cinnamon buff suffused with blackish, more reddish in summer; brow patch whitish; ear grayish on outside, whitish on inside; tail usually with black tip and white basal portion; underparts white. Dental formula: I 0/3, C 0/1, Pm 3/3, M 3/3 X 2 = 32.

The Red deer has a rich red colored coat, darkening down to a grayish brown in winter. A mature stag carries a large rack of antlers, which are at peak condition in the early autumn for the rut, when they are used for bouts of sparring between rivals. A dominant animal may have 18-20 points (tines) on the antlers, although 14-16 is more common. A stag with more than 12 tines is known as a 'Royal'. A fully-grown Red stag can stand 120cm (48'') high at the shoulder and can weigh anything up to 190kg (420Ibs).

A small to medium sized deer that, due to extensive hybridization in Texas , is highly variable in size and coloration. In general, sika are all "compact" in form; appear "dainty-legged"; and have a short, trim, wedge-shaped head. Males carry antlers that average 28-48 cm in length, although exceptional racks may be up to 74 cm in length. Sika antlers have 3-4 points branching from a main beam; there is no palmate growth as in the fallow deer. Females have a pair of black bumps on the forehead, their placement corresponding to that of the males's antlers.

A relatively small deer with relatively short ears; all major points of the antlers come off the main beam; tail relatively long, broad basally, and white underneath; metatarsal gland small and circular; females usually antlerless; upperparts reddish brown in summer, bright grayish fawn sprinkled with black in winter; face and tail usually lack blackish markings; underparts white. Dental formula as in the mule deer . External measurements average: (males) total length, 1,800 mm; tail, 300 mm; hind foot, 450 mm; females slightly smaller. Weight of males, 30-70 kg.

Habitat & Diet